Middleware is mainly used to process before request and process after response, such as listening request and response.



  • The function should receive a special argument;
  • The function return nothing.

The arguments are listed in the following example:

from ruia import Middleware

middleware = Middleware()

async def print_on_request(spider_ins, request):
    This function will be called before every request.
    request: an object of Request
    print("request: print when a request is received")

async def print_on_response(spider_ins, request, response):
    This function will be called after every request.
    request: an object of Request
    response: an object of Response
    print("response: print when a response is received")

How It Works?

Middleware used decorators to implement the callback function, aims at writting middlewares easier for developers.

Middleware().request_middleware and Middleware().response_middleware are two queues, stands for the user-defined functions.